skip to Main Content

Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle

The foot and ankle are intricate structures composed of numerous bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles that work together to provide support, balance, and movement:

  • Bones: The foot and ankle consist of 26 bones, including the tarsal bones (ankle), metatarsal bones (foot), and phalanges (toes).
  • Joints: Several joints in the foot and ankle allow for flexibility and movement.
  • Ligaments: Ligaments connect bones to other bones, providing stability to the joints.
  • Tendons: Tendons attach muscles to bones, enabling movement.
  • Muscles: Numerous muscles in the foot and lower leg control fine motor skills and support the foot’s arch and movement.
  • Nerves: Major nerves provide sensation and motor control to the foot and ankle.

Common Causes of Foot & Ankle Pain

Foot and ankle pain can result from various conditions, injuries, and deformities. Some of the common causes we treat at Excel Health include:


A bunion is a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of the big toe, causing the toe to deviate towards the other toes. This condition can result from genetic factors, improper footwear, or arthritis. Symptoms include pain, swelling, and difficulty finding comfortable shoes.


Hammertoe is a deformity where one or more toes are bent at the middle joint, resembling a hammer. This condition can be caused by genetic factors, arthritis, or wearing tight shoes. Symptoms include pain, corns, calluses, and difficulty walking.

Ankle Sprain

An ankle sprain occurs when the ligaments that support the ankle stretch or tear, usually due to a sudden twist or turn. Symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, and difficulty bearing weight on the affected foot.

Foot or Ankle Fracture

A fracture is a break in one or more of the bones in the foot or ankle, often resulting from trauma such as falls, sports injuries, or accidents. Symptoms include severe pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and inability to move or bear weight on the affected area.

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by the compression of the tibial nerve as it passes through the tarsal tunnel, a narrow space inside the ankle. This nerve compression can lead to pain, tingling, and numbness in the foot and ankle. Contributing factors include overuse, injury, and structural abnormalities.

Diagnosis and Treatment at Excel Health

At Excel Health, our orthopedic specialists are experts in diagnosing and treating foot and ankle pain. We use advanced diagnostic tools, including imaging studies and thorough physical examinations, to accurately determine the cause of your pain.

Our treatment plans are customized to your specific condition and needs, ranging from conservative management (such as rest, physical therapy, orthotics, and medications) to surgical interventions if necessary. Our focus is on alleviating your pain, restoring function, and helping you return to your daily activities with improved comfort and mobility.

Contact Us

If foot or ankle pain is impacting your life, schedule a consultation with one of our specialists at Excel Health. We are committed to providing comprehensive care to help you achieve optimal foot and ankle health and regain your ability to move freely and comfortably.

Back To Top